What are reasons and symptoms of type 2 diabetes and how to treatment of type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes originally called adult-onset diabetes, multiple onset after 35 to 40 years old, accounting for over 90% of people with diabetes. The ability to produce insulin the body is not completely lost, some patients, the body produces too much insulin even, but the role of insulin less effective, so the patient is a relative lack of insulin, oral medications can be certain, stimulate the secretion of insulin in the body. But later there is still need to use insulin therapy in some patients.

Etiology of type 2 diabetes – Reasons of type 2 diabetes

1. Genetic factors
Like with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes have a more significant family history. Some of these disease-causing genes have been identified, some still in the research stage.
2. Environmental factors
Epidemiological studies have shown that obesity, high calorie diet, lack of physical activity and type 2 diabetes, aging is the most important environmental factors. Hypertension, dyslipidemia and other factors can also increase the risk.
3. Age factor
Most type 2 diabetes onset after the age of 30. In half of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, age at onset was 55 years of age.
4. Racial factor
Compared with Caucasians and Asians, type 2 diabetes easier Native Americans, African – Americans and Spanish populations occur.
5. Lifestyle
Intake of high-calorie and irrational structure (high-fat, high-protein, low-carbohydrate) diet can lead to obesity, increases body weight and lack of physical exercise, insulin resistance will be increased, leading to defects in insulin secretion and type 2 diabetes occurred.

Cause a major cause of type 2 diabetes include obesity, too little physical activity and stress. Stress, including stress, fatigue, mental stimulation, trauma, surgery, childbirth, other major diseases, and the use of elevated blood sugar hormones and so on. Because of these inducement, the patient’s insulin secretory capacity and body insulin sensitivity decreased, elevated blood sugar leading to diabetes.
So far, we have no control over the genetic factors of the human body. However, we can intervene on environmental factors, thereby reducing the prevalence of type 2 diabetes.

The clinical manifestations of type 2 diabetes

Are some patients with type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance based, multi-obese patients, because insulin resistance, decreased insulin sensitivity, increase in blood insulin to compensate for insulin resistance, hyperglycemia relative to the patient, the relative lack of insulin secretion is still . Such not obvious early symptoms of patients, only mild weakness, thirst, often before a definite diagnosis can macrovascular and microvascular complications. Diet therapy and oral hypoglycemic agents and more effective. Another part of the patient to insulin secretory defect based on clinical need the supplement of exogenous insulin.

Treatment of type 2 diabetes

1. Oral antidiabetic drugs
(A) biguanides (such as metformin) These drugs have reduced hepatic of glucose output capability, and can help muscle cells, adipocytes and liver absorption of glucose from the blood more, thereby reducing blood glucose levels.
(2) sulfonylureas (such as glimepiride, glibenclamide, gliclazide and gliquidone) main role of such Oral antidiabetic drugs is to stimulate insulin release more insulin.
(3) thiazolidine-diones (such as rosiglitazone and pioglitazone) of these drugs can enhance insulin sensitivity, help muscle cells, adipocytes and liver absorb more blood glucose. However, rosiglitazone may increase the risk of heart disease.
(4) benzoic acid derivatives (such as repaglinide and nateglinide) mechanism of action of these drugs is similar with sulfonylurea drugs, mainly to stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin to lower blood sugar.
(5) α- glucosidase inhibitors (such as acarbose and voglibose) such antidiabetic drugs can inhibit the absorption of carbohydrates in the human digestive tract, the main role is to reduce postprandial hyperglycemia.

2. Insulin drugs
If still not well under control blood sugar through lifestyle changes and the use of oral hypoglycemic agents, or taking other drugs will adversely affect you, the doctor might suggest you use insulin. Currently, oral insulin can not only use a syringe or insulin pen device via subcutaneous injection.
The onset time and the role of different insulin preparations duration is different. Patients need a doctor’s guidance, the choice for their current insulin types of the disease, and to develop appropriate insulin injection time.
In order to achieve the best glycemic control may sometimes be more premixed insulin injections. Typically, the frequency of insulin injections is 1 to 4 times / day.
By losing weight and strengthening exercise, some with type 2 diabetes find that they can no longer need medication. Because when they reach the ideal weight range, through its own insulin and dietary adjustments can control the blood sugar.
It is unclear whether pregnant women oral hypoglycemic drug safety. Female patients with type 2 diabetes During Pregnancy and breastfeeding may need to stop oral hypoglycemic agents, and use  insulin injections.

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